Perhaps some insight into the fate of the Bufalini Plan can be gleaned from its divergences with contemporary illustrated works on ancient Rome. Like Raphael, Tolomei, and Marliani, Bufalini had the goal of preserving the ancient city on paper, yet unlike them he depicted Rome as a timeless landscape in which the contemporary and classical intermingle seamlessly. In his regard, Bufalini's plan might have fallen short of the standards of contemporary Roman humanists, for it went against trends in historical analysis. While many scholars placed increasing emphasis on organization by historical period, Bufalini made no distinction between ancient and modern. He was a military engineer, not a humanist; his training granted him expertise in ichnography, not in historical method. By contrast, Raphael had spent a section of his letter to Leo X defining the the characteristics of successive eras in building, and Tolomei had expressed his plan to "consider, and understand well all the ancient remains by way of history" in order to trace "the growth of Rome little by little." [n. 39] Marliani, too, went further than Bufalini in his attempt to sort through the historical stages of building and topography by accompanying his map with textual explication and supplementary illustration. [n. 40]

For Raphael, Marliani, and Tolomei, furthermore, orthogonal plans were never meant to stand alone, but to be supllemented by pictures or text. Bufalini alone presented his map as self-sufficient, and he might have been wrong to expect that an ichnographic plan such as his could speak for itself. […]



Fussnote (beginnend auf S. 35)

[35] The engineer Francesco De Marchi wrote admiringly of "master Leonardo of Udine, a skilled architect, the one who measured all of

[Fortsetzung auf S. 37]

Rome inside and out, and had it printed with all the hills, cheaters, temples, streets and other things indicated" ("maestro Leonardo da Udine valente architect, il quale miser tutta Roma dentro e four, e la pose in istampa con tutti li monti e Theatri, & Tempii, strade e altre cose segnalate…" De Marchi, Della architecture militare, book 2, chapter 32). The scholar Onofrio Panvinio similarly wrote of "a certain Leonardo Bufalini from Friuli", who "measured the entire city with the incredible labor and steadfast study of twenty years, and printed his ichnography as a woodcut" ("Leonardus quidam Bufalinus, Forioulianensis, faber lingers, incredibili labore et pertinaci XX annorum studio totam urgem commensuravit et ligneous typis emus ichnographiam expressed…" (Cod. Vat. 6683, 202, cited in Ehrle, Roma al tempo di Giulio III, 20).

[38] …

[39] "considerare, ed intender bene tutte l'anticaglie per via d'historia; ove si vedrà distintamente, e la Roma quadrata antica, e gli accrescimenti di Roma di mano in mano." Claudio Tolomei, cited in Jacks, The Antiquarian and the Myth of Antiquity, 208.

[40] See Jacks, The Antiquarian …, 206–214.